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How Are Integrated Circuits Classified Based on Their Complexity?

How Are Integrated Circuits

An integrated circuit (IC) is a microchip that contains both active and passive components, interconnected by tiny metal wires. The circuits are designed to be as small and economical to produce as possible. ICs are often found in electronic devices like calculators, radios, televisions and computers. ICs are classified according to their signal types and the fabrication techniques used in their construction.

The development of the IC has been fueled by technological advances that allow ever more transistors to be placed on a chip of the same size. The result has been a huge increase in the amount of processing power that can be packed into a relatively small space – modern computer chips, for instance, contain billions of transistors in an area the size of a human fingernail. This is known as very-large-scale integration, or VLSI.

Integrated Circuits are made by depositing various types of semiconductors, including silicon and gallium arsenide, on a glass or ceramic substrate that is then coated with insulating materials to protect them from electrical interference. The individual devices are then formed using lithography, a process in which light waves of a particular frequency are used to expose the appropriate layer of material. Additional steps are then used to remove unwanted materials and to add connections between the devices.

How Are Integrated Circuits Classified Based on Their Complexity?

Since the invention of the transistor in 1947, scientists have been working on ways to control the flow of electrons through crystal structures. William Shockley and his team, at the American Telephone and Telegraph Company’s Bell Laboratories in New Jersey, developed a device they called a transistor – a combination of the words transfer and resistor – that allowed them to perform the sort of signal-processing functions previously done by vacuum tubes. By the 1960s, it was possible to build multi-function ICs with millions or even billions of transistors and other devices on a single silicon chip.

The resulting monolithic IC is a remarkable feat of engineering. The components are microscopic, so they must be fabricated in spotless laboratory environments called clean rooms where the air is scrupulously filtered and employees pass in and out through airlocks exhausting all kinds of protective clothing. The entire process is extremely time consuming, which limits the use of ICs in some applications.

IC’s are sensitive to heat, which can cause them to malfunction or even burn if not properly dissipated. To address this problem, the designers of IC’s create them to operate within a temperature range that is well above room temperature and below the melting point of silicon. IC’s are also not flexible, which means that once a circuit is designed and manufactured it cannot be modified or changed.

Integrated circuits are typically packaged in plastic or metal cans and are labeled with their pinout, which is the set of pins on the end that are connected to the external parts of the circuit. This information is required to correctly install the IC onto a printed circuit board (PCB). IC’s are also available in a variety of package styles, from dual in-line packages to metal cans and ceramic flat packs.

Jinftry (JING FU CAI (HONGKONG) INTERNATIONAL CO., LIMITED) is a global professional one-stop procurement and service provider of electronic components. It uses independent distribution, platform distribution combined with the Internet online sales model to sell various products worldwide. Types of electronic components, providing one-stop component procurement and supply chain services to global OEM factory customers and brokers. Sales include integrated circuits, discrete semiconductors, IGBT modules, connectors, capacitors, diodes, transistors and other electronic components, covering power supply, automotive, communications, computers, consumer products, medical, industrial, mobile phone and other application fields.

Jinftry product line cards: TI, ONSEMI, Microchip, Maxim, NXP, STM, Xilinx, Intel, Infineon, Broadcom, Renesas, samtec, Souriau, CISSOID, Mitsubishi, FUJI, Semikron, etc.

 

Website: https://www.jinftry.com

Shenzhen Operation Center Address: 26F1, Building C, Electronic Technology Building, Shennan Middle Road, Futian District, Shenzhen, Guangdong, China

Hong Kong company name: JING FU CAI (HONGKONG) INTERNATIONAL CO., LIMITED

Registered address of Hong Kong company: Unit No.A222,3F,Hang Fung Industrial Building,Phase2,No.2G Hok Yuen Street,Hunghom,Kowloon,Hong Kong

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